Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Solaris Review Essay Example

Solaris Review Paper Essay on Solaris Stanislaw Lem a wonderful writer. Fiction called I do not dare. He futurist, philosopher, in short, who is anything but fiction. What with the fact that the action does not take place on Earth and the space station Before researchers should interesting problems -. To establish contact with the planet, the only person that is a reasonable ocean. The ocean, in turn, also not against the establishment of any relations, but it and the people speak different languages. Here it is a likelihood of exposure not an invasion of Martians or other space monsters, and a lack of understanding, which in our real life is quite enough. This tells the life story of the main character who is guilty of the death of the woman he loved. People irradiated ocean, and he replied embodies the reality of their most secret dreams. But what we fear more than the fact that the dream will come true, and it turns out that this is not what you wanted. That is why an epidemic of madness covers station. According to her roam the creation of the ocean: replicas of those who wanted to see the heroes of whom dreamed of. They did not destroy the normal way. Space creatures resembling Earth. What could be worse We will write a custom essay sample on Solaris Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Solaris Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Solaris Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A particularly hits the last scene: a reasonable ocean stretches its tentacles to people, calling for dialogue. I know that Lem did not like the film by Andrei Tarkovsky in his novel. Tarkovsky Chris Kelvin in the final sees his home, he, like the prodigal son returned to his own home. Lem takes the characters in the space provided and Tarkovsky sees space on Earth.

Friday, March 6, 2020

I Wish I Married Rich Essays

I Wish I Married Rich Essays I Wish I Married Rich Essay I Wish I Married Rich Essay Merlin gives women instructions on how to marry rich. She gives insight on the drawbacks and perks of marrying rich men. Through the use of ellipsis and flashbacks, as well as allusions and diction, Merlin is able to do this. Throughout the article, Merlin uses ellipsis and dashes to enhance the dramatic qualities of her work. It causes the reader to pause and reflect what Merlin has Just said, such as this statement: None of my wealthy suitors had much in the way of animal magnetism?or even plain old magnetism. The men she had dated were rich, UT they were also hit by the ugly stick. She also uses a reference of Queen Victoria. Merlin wishes she would have met her early in her life, stating: She could have set me straight. Merlin, in a sense, regrets her decision on not marrying rich. Money, as it seems, can buy happiness. Merlin also references the works of other authors, such as Molly Gong-Fast. Molly recognizes that wealthy men, who also have looks, have attractive wives who Tend to be long and sparkly with beautiful skin. Women do not have to be goddesses in order to land such men, but it does not hurt to have such qualities. She also uses words that most people would not use on occasion. Mermen uses words in her writing such as enter ©e and Fretter sheets. She shows how she came from a well set family, and how she could have stayed In her past social circle. It is rare for a woman to find a man who has the best of both worlds. Men are either wealthy and ugly, or poor and good looking. Women need to decide which quality they are more attracted to. Not only must they choose, they must choose which quality will benefit them In the long run, as Daphne Mermen states In the title of her article.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Provide an argument for the claim that (some) mental states are not Essay

Provide an argument for the claim that (some) mental states are not identical to any brain state. Explain why the argument is va - Essay Example It also provides reason why that argument is valid and explains the resources the monist has at her disposal to undermine our confidence in the soundness of this argument. It also evaluates the response of a monist to the dualist argument that has been provided. The argument for the claim that some mental states are not identical to any brain state is supported by various premises. First, phenomenal properties can only reside in mental substances and not physical objects such as the brain. Second, physical bodies like the brain have spatial properties while minds do not have spatial properties. Third, a mind thinks while physical bodies such as the brain do not think. Fourth, a mind is known to exist with certainty while physical bodies like the brain lack that property. Therefore, in conclusion, some mental states are not identical to any brain state, and a mind is distinct from every physical state. This argument is valid because thinking about things involves intentionality, which is a property of nonphysical things (Mandik). For instance, a brain, which is purely physical, cannot think about things that do not exist in time and space. However, a mind can think about things that do not exist in time and space. Secondly, the brain cannot have intentionality because intentionality is very strange. People also think about things in the far future and distant past via their minds (Mandik). Therefore, a mind is distinct from every physical body, including the brain. Secondly, physical bodies are known via senses, but this senses ca be deceived (Mandik). Something that seems to exist may not exist, in real terms. One cannot be wrong about existence of his or her own mind. Minds are known to exist in certainty while physical objects may not be known to exist with certainty. Therefore, a mental state is known to exist with certainty while physical bodies such as the brain lack that property, and as such, a mind must be very distinct from every physical body, the bra in include (Mandik). However, this dualist argument is subject to rejection by proponents of alternatives to dualism such as monism. To undermine our confidence in the soundness of this argument, the monist has various resources at her disposal. First, monism rejects the premise of this dualist argument that the mind is immaterial. Therefore, the question goes, how can a mind, which is considered to be immaterial influence the physical brain (Seybold 89)? Also, how can a non-physical soul or mind affect a physical body, such as the brain (Seybold 90)? Secondly, neuroscience states that the brain is clearly necessary for mental states to occur, but a particular mental state is not identical to a particular brain state. Consequently, some brain state must exist for the mental event to take place, but no particular brain state can be mapped onto the specific mental event in a one to one manner. Monists argue that mental activities emerge from the brain (Seybold 90). Monism agrees with dualism that the mind can, and does affect the brain or the body, but monists reject this argument because it is not explained how the mind can affect the body, if the body and mind are of two different substances, as required in dualism (Seybold 90). Therefore, it is impossible for the physical body to be moved by a mind, which is not part of the physical world, according to monism. It should also be noted that body processes such as thinking require energy and the mind,

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

External and internal pressures Ukrainian art and culture Essay

External and internal pressures Ukrainian art and culture - Essay Example Whatever gains, however, that Ukrainian arts and culture had during that era soon became ineffective when Stalinization and â€Å"russification† was imposed on non-Russian cultures. This implied a suppression of non-Russian culture and the imposition of Russian culture as a guideline for all artistic and cultural activities. With the death of Stalin in 1953 and the subsequent de-Stalinization of Russian policies during the reign of Nikita Khrushchev in the late 1950s, Ukrainian art became free once again. A historical look at Ukrainian art reveals that despite the influences, forced or otherwise, there exists distinct Ukrainian elements that characterize and separate Ukrainian art from other foreign arts and culture. Ukrainian architecture began to take a distinctive shape in the pre-Christian era. Early Ukrainian structures were made of wood. In the 9th to 10th centuries churches, fortifications and even palaces were made of wood (see Fig. 1). Pieces of timber were horizontal ly placed on top of another to form structures and this tradition of construction was continued even up to the 20th century (My Ukraine). When Ukraine embraced Christianity in the 16th century, churches were built in Byzantine style but adopted the traditional and local Ukrainian methods which can be characterized by â€Å"large central nave with almost square plans and a high framework, windows were situated high above the ground, and the buildings were covered with a vault, hipped roof or cupola,† a roofing type in which is conical in shape and sloping and made of wood, brick or stone. These churches can also be characterized by the placement of the altar, which were located on the east with the door in the west or south.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Analysis of Emily DickinsonI Heard a Fly Buzz-When I Died

Analysis of Emily DickinsonI Heard a Fly Buzz-When I Died The Tone and Mood in I Heard a Fly BuzzWhen I Died Dickinson writes this poem from a perspective after she has died. She is describing the experience of dying, the final aesthesis before the exact moment of death. The speaker is both observer and participant, which means the Self is divided. The poem shows her own sight of death- a common yet indescribable mystery of human experience. She imaginatively explores the mystery. The tone is very calm. This coolness of the speaker who is dying helps the readers understand the level of acceptance of her own fate. Furthermore, the tone is quite a robotic narration, the kind that one would expect from a dead person, with no emotion. Flies are creatures that eat carrions. It is an ironic and cruel admonisher of the fate of a dead person’s body after he or she has died, which is a contrast of the traditional Christian belief about the holiness of life and death. Angels or God himself dont come to take the soul of the her after the death, instead, a mere fly comes, and then the whole feeling changes and leaves total darkness and oblivion to the readers. In the first stanza, Dickinson tells us that she is in the room, which is silent and the most important element of the poem, the dead scene, waiting for her death. The poem describes the tranquility between heaves, suggesting that upheaval has happened in this moment and that more upheaval will follow. It is a moment of anticipation, of waiting. The air is still, and the witnesses of her death are silent, yet the fly is buzzing. The speakers tone is tranquil, even flat. Her narration is concise and factual. She repeats the word Stillness twice with both capitalized, which shows how strong that emotion is. However, in this stillness she heard a buzz of a fly, which interrupts the calmness n apparently annoys her. That is why she says I heard a Fly buzz when I died, to express the interruption of her certainty of death. In the second stanza, we are still in the room, but the speaker leaves the fly behind and talks about the people witnessing the death during her last moment. Her breathing shows that that last onset is about to happen. Last onset is an oxymoron, while onset means a beginning, and last means an end. The people around her are now stop crying and are calmly preparing for her death. It shows everything is ready and she is now going to unite with the King in heaven. We can still see that although this is her last moment, there is no fear or sadness in this atmosphere. On the other hand, except for her inner calmness, the people around her are quiet and calm too, other than weeping and crying. This strengthens the stillness in the first stanza. The third and forth stanzas are an introduction of the fly. In the third stanza, when the speaker knows she is now ready and is giving away her wills and heritage, without any trace of sorrow and fear, the fly a reappear intruder, a weird, unnecessary, and gross little bug breaks in her calmness again. This sudden interruption of the fly damages the peaceful image of this poem unexpectedly. Although the fly doesnt appear in most of the poem, it comes back in a big way. The speaker uses the word interposed, which changes everything and makes the atmosphere much less comfortable. In the forth stanza, it is the first time that the speaker describes the fly in details. She uses words Blue uncertain stumbling buzz to show the image of it. It gives readers a stronger image of the colors and movements that go along with that annoying sound. Dickinson doesnt write a sentence to describe the fly, on the contrary, she only drops a few words, and we begin to build a picture in our minds. Also, the word uncertain is definitely a completely opposite image of her willingness towards her death. When flies, which eat dead bodies, are associated with decay and death, this intruders interruption of the speakers progress toward the comforting of the light is evil. And right when the fly interposes between the light and her, she closes her eyes and dies, in other words, the moment when she dies, she does not die comfortably, which is out of expectation of the stillness in this poem. Although death is expected, the actual moment of death happens suddenly. Also, when read the poem as a whole, the eyesight has been narrowing, closing and centralizing on the fly throughout the whole incident. Every line in this poem is written in perfect iambic meter. They are divided into two syllable chunks, while emphasizing on the second syllable. The length of the stanzas and the lines are also regular. There are four stanzas each with four lines. The first and the third lines in each stanza have eight syllables. The second and fourth lines each have six syllables. Dickinson gave this poem a smooth, rhythmic feel. Rhyme also plays a significant role in this poem. The first stanzas have no apparent rhyme, until the last stanza that we see a rhyme pattern of ABCB, which indicates that true rhyme comes with true death. The rhyme finalizes the death in a way that making it a major part of the poem by putting emphasis on it. Dickinson also uses a lot of hyphens, which seems randomly put in but in fact it is another important strategy. A dying person gasping for breath that have abrupt pauses in their speech. The way they force you to pause again and again, even in weird places, gives readers the sense of slow, certain anticipation. These lines represent those abrupt pauses, causing readers to read the poem much as the speaker herself would. The overall atmosphere in this poem is quiet, calm and peaceful, though, except when the fly interrupts the speakers waiting of death. When the sound of the fly fades, the vita of the speaker also fades, until the poem’s final moment of silence. It is very different from the stereotype feeling when people talk or write about death. In this poem, the death is painless, yet the vision of death is horrifying. At the beginning, the insignificant fly merely startles and disconcerts us. But at the end of the poem, the fly assumes dreadful meaning. Obviously the central image is the fly. It expresses the mood and experiences in the speakers death. Although the tone is calm, the mood is somber and sad, as the fly apparently interrupts her anticipation of a peaceful death. In conclusion, this poem represents the nature of death, what everyone has to encounter when they die. However, most of us believe we, human beings are special, superior to the other animals and that our deaths should be treated with more honor, while the fact is that human beings are animals, too. Our deaths are no more or less significant than the others. Death is natural. This poem represents the obscure feeling within Emily Dickinson. She could simply write a poem about seeing herself going to heaven, but she didnt consider death was as honorable as many would think and in the end she â€Å"could not see to see† References 1. I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died. I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died. Web. 11 Mar. 2015. . 2. On 465 (I Heard a Fly Buzzwhen I Died). On 465 (I Heard a Fly Buzzwhen I Died). Web. 11 Mar. 2015. 3. Web. 11 Mar. 2015. . 4. Shmoop Editorial Team. I Heard a Fly Buzz – When I Died –. Shmoop.com. Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 11 Mar. 2015. .

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Organizational Behavior: Personality and Values Essay

In today’s modern society, personality and values play a critical role in the stability of an organization. Today, diversity is the key to the success of most organizations. However, diversity goes beyond merely race, religion, color, national origin, gender, age, and disability. The diversity of personality and the appreciation of the variety of talents and skills of our co-workers will go far in helping us make our lives less stressful. The human resource department and hiring managers need to consider personality and values when they hire new employees. It is also important that they understand and appreciate the different personality and values of their current employees. Personality and Values In today’s competitive market it has become extremely important to hire the right people to help execute the mission and vision of a company. The employee helps bring the slogan on the wall into existence; therefore, it is important that employees display the right personality and values the company would like to show the world. Gordon Allport produced the definition of personality we most frequently use nearly 70 years ago. Allport said personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment (Robbins & Judge, 2013, p. 133). However, the definition has been tweaked over the years. For the purpose of this paper, personality is defined as the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. The most important reason managers need to know how to measure personality is that research has shown personality tests are useful in hiring decisions and help managers for ecast who is best for a job (Robbins & Judge, 2013, p. 133). Values are another area where companies need to ensure the employees and managers are on the same page. When values are divided, problems with the organization closely follow. Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state existence. They contain a judgmental element in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable. Values have both content and intensity attributes. The content attribute says a mode of conduct or end-state of existence is important. The intensity attribute specifies how important it is. When we ran an individual’s values in terms of their intensity, we obtain that person’s value system (Robbins & Judge, 2013, p. 144). When a company considers the personality of their employees and the value system of the owners and shareholders the company had now developed a company personality. Personality Traits Corporations often use personality assessments to understand how the people that belong in their organization interact. Two popular frame works for indentifying and classifying traits are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Big Five Model. According to Robins and Judge, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is the most widely used personality assessment instrument in the world. It is a 100-question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. Respondents are classified as extraverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving (J or P). These terms are defined as follows: * Extraverted (E) versus Introverted (I). Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy. * Sensing (S) versus Intuitive (N). Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitive rely on unconscious processes and look at the à ¢â‚¬Å"big picture.† * Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F). Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions. * Judging (J) versus perceiving (P). Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous (Robbins & Judge, 2011, p. 56) These classifications together describe 16 personality types, indentifying every person by one trait from each of the four parts. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator has been widely used by organizations including Apple Computer, AT&T, Citigroup, GE, 3M Co., many hospitals and educational institutions, and even the U.S. Armed Forces (Robbins & Judge, 2011, p. 135). The Myers-Briggs Personality Indicator may lack strong supporting evidence, but an impressive body of research supports the thesis of the Big Five Model – that five basic dimensions underlie all others and encompass most of the significant variation in human personality. Moreover, test scores of these traits do a very good job of predicting how people behave in a variety of real-life situations (Robbins & Judge, 2011, p. 136). The following are the Big Five factors: * Extraversion. The extraversion dimension captures our comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts tend to be reserved, timed and quiet. * Agreeableness. The agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic. * Conscientiousness. The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable. * Emotional stability. The emotional stability dimension – often labeled by its converse, neuroticism – taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure. * Openness to experience. The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar (Robbins & Judge, 2011, p. 136). Generational Values Values within a person are oftentimes shaped by what generation and life events they may have experienced during their formative years. Researchers have integrated several recent analyses of work values into four groups that attempt to capture the unique vales of different cohorts or generations in the United States workforce (Robbins & Judge, 2011, p. 145). There are some limitations to this theory because a person born in one generation can have the characteristic of another generation. Just because you are born on a certain date, does not automatically make you have the same values as everyone in your own generation. Despite these limitations, values do change over generations, and we can gain some useful insights from analyzing values this way. Boomers (Baby Boomers) are a large cohort born after World War II when United States veterans returned to their families and times were good. Boomers entered the workforce from the mid-1960’s through the mid-1980’s. They brought with them a large measure of the â€Å"hippy ethic† and distrust of authority. But they placed a great deal of emphasis on achievement and material success. Pragmatists who believe ends justify means; they work hard and want to enjoy the fruits of their labors. Boomers see the organizations that employ them merely as vehicles for their careers. In terms of seniority, baby boomers make up the bulk of the employees in most large corporations, so it is imperative that co-workers understand the values of the person sitting or standing next to them. Terminal values such as a sense of accomplishments and social recognition rank high with them (Robbins & Judge, 2011, p. 146). The lives of Xers (Generation Xers) have been shaped by globalization, two-career parents, MTV, AIDS, and computers. Xers value flexibility, life options, and the achievement of job satisfaction. Family and relationships are very important. Xers are skeptical, particularly of authority. They also enjoy team-oriented work. In search of balance in their lives, Xers are less willing to make personal sacrifices for the sake of their employer than previous generations were. Generation Xers rate high on true friendship, happiness, and pleasure. The most recent entrants to the workforce, the millennials (also called Netters, Nexters, Generation Yers, and Generation Nexters) grew up during prosperous times. They have high expectations and seek meaning in their work. Millennial have life goals more oriented toward becoming rich (81 percent) and famous (51 percent) than do Generation Xers (62 percent) and 29 percent, respectively, but they also see themselves as socially responsible (Robbins & Judge, 2011, p. 146). They are more ethnically and racially diverse than older adults. They’re less religious, less likely to have served in the military, and are on track to become the most educated generation in American history. They embrace multiple modes of self-expression. Three-quarters have created a profile on a social networking site. One-in-five have posted a video of themselves online. Nearly four-in-ten have a tattoo (and for most who do, one is not enough: about half of those with tattoos have two to five and 18% have six or more). Nearly one-in-four have a piercing in some place other than an earlobe- about six times the share of older adults who’ve done this. But their look-at-me tendencies are not without limits. Most Millennials have placed privacy boundaries on their social media profiles and 70% say their tattoos are hidden beneath clothing (Millennial, 2010). Policy on Ethics Often times the value system of a company can clearly be seen with the company’s ethical code. Chrysler actually posts a code of ethics brochure on their website to ensure all employees and customers know their value system. According to the website, Chrysler expects all of its employees to contribute to a cooperative working environment in which the dignity of each individual is respected. The conduct of management personnel should set an example to promote positive employee morale and the open exchange of ideas. Chrysler is committed to high ethical standards in business transactions. Chrysler does not tolerate unethical or corrupt practices by its employees or its business partners. Chrysler strictly forbids engaging in or tolerating bribery or any other form of corruption. High standards require hard work, courage and often present difficult choices. At times, choosing the proper course of action means foregoing business or personal opportunities. The â€Å"integrity code,† while not all-inclusive, reflects the basic standards of ethical behavior expected of Chrysler employees and should be read in conjunction with the company policies, guidelines, and standards of conduct that also apply to Chrysler employees (â€Å"Integrity Code,† 2009). Ineffective company ethics policies can also be a detriment to the company’s public image, stature in the business community, and ultimately to their profitability. Many people assume that running a successful business often entails a systematic approach, however the personality and values of employees of a company plays a crucial role in its success as well. It is can be detrimental when executive decisions are not made and could result in them being extremely costly. For example, according to Academy of Management executives â€Å"clean up costs are sometimes difficult to attribute to any particular ethics failure. Consisting of such things as attorney and audit fees , investigative costs†¦medical actions†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The Enron scandal being the root example of a company destroyed due to simply unethical individuals. Not implementing ethics in any company will always fail in some way whether a small loss to an incomprehensible one (Schermerhorn & Dienhart, 2004). That is why it is imperative to ensure a code of ethics as part of the system. The dynamics of decision making for any individual who is often faced with issues regarding â€Å"ethics† becomes far more complex than it sounds. Every company, in one way or another, are faced with difficulties of employees making decisions that sometime seem ethical or not. Not everyone can make such decisions. The downfall of those who lack the ability to make ethical decisions can be costly. A company’s inability to reinforce â€Å"ethics† in their business can quickly become detrimental. One only has to look at Enron, Arthur Anderson, and Worldcom to understand the catastrophic effects of having ineffective ethical policies and values (Thomas, Schermerhorn & Dienhart, 2004). Company Values In regards to company values and ethics, Chick-fil-A has been in the news because of the words of their owner in regards to â€Å"Christian values.† His comments have caused the business world to examine the role of a business owner’s personal values and company values. At issue was the CEO’s opinion of same sex marriage. The controversy came to a boil after an interview with the fast food restaurant chain’s president and COO Dan Cathy appeared in The Baptist Press on July 16 and he weighed in with his views on family. â€Å"We are very much supportive of the family — the biblical definition of the family unit,† Cathy said. â€Å"We are a family-owned business, a family-led business, and we are married to our first wives. We give God thanks for that.† Proponents of same-sex marriage spread Cathy’s comments, eventually creating a firestorm of criticism on social media, including assertions that his comments and position were bigo ted and hateful (Brumfield, 2012). Internships Corporations often demonstrate their values to customers by the way they treat their employees and the opportunities that are available for citizens to become a part of the company. One way to quickly rise in a company is to connect to their intern program. Chick-fil-A boasts about their internship program on their website. According to their corporate website, the purpose of the Chick-fil-A Internship Program is to provide a high-caliber group of students an opportunity to enhance their educational experience and improve their career preparation. A key objective of the intern experience is to help students and recent graduates understand and appreciate the importance of building and maintaining strong work relationships in accomplishing results. We have designed the program to involve students in real work projects while also allowing them time to experience many aspects of the Chick-fil-A corporate culture. The cultural experience includes significant executive exposure and numerou s development opportunities (â€Å"Internship,† n.d.). The Chrysler Corporation also has an intern program that is called the Chrysler Leadership Development program. The Chrysler Leadership Development (CLD) Program is a highly selective two-year program that develops leaders by incorporating intensive on-the-job learning opportunities with supplemental development and interaction with our global business leaders. You’ll have the guidance and support of Chrysler leadership throughout your experience and opportunities to build on your talents through high-impact assignments. The program will provide you an accelerated opportunity to learn our business, executive mentor support, and an investment to grow your leadership abilities (â€Å"Leadership Development Program,† n.d.). As with most intern programs, the potential employee must meet minimum requirements. To be considered for the Program, you must meet the following requirements: * MBA/Master’s degree with a minimum 3.2 GPA * 2-6 years of professional business experience * Demonstrated leadership experience (â€Å"Leadership Development Program,† n.d.). According to Chic-fil-A’s website, the organization values diversity. What is diversity? According to the Civil Rights office of the Department of Interior, the term â€Å"diversity† is used broadly to refer to many demographic variables, including, but not limited to, race, religion, color, gender, national origin, disability, sexual orientation, age, education, geographic origin, and skill characteristics. America’s diversity has given this country its unique strength, resilience and richness (â€Å"Diversity,† 2012). Diversity management makes everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others. Diversity is much more likely to be successful when we see it as everyone’s business than if we believe it helps only certain groups of employees. One method of enhancing workforce diversity is to target recruiting messages to specific demographic groups underrepresented in the work force. This means placing advertisement in publications geared toward specific demographic groups; recruiting at colleges, universities, and other institutions with significant numbers of underrepresented minorities; and forming partnerships with association like the Society for Women Engineers or the Graduate Minority Business Association (Robbins & Judge, 2011, p. 56). Values and Ethics Organizational Development is an emerging profession, and its practitioners tend to describe themselves as professionals. However, individuals working in the field may vary greatly in respect to their degree of professionalism. By professionalism, we refer to the internalization of a value system that is a part of the concept of the profession. Whether a person can be deemed a professional is determined by the degree to which he or she has internalized certain values pertinent to the profession. Although there is some disagreement, four areas appear to be important. * Expertise. The professional requires some expertise. This includes specialized knowledge and skills that can be obtained only through training (usually through academic study and experience). * Autonomy. The professional claims autonomy. Professionals reserve the right to decide how their function is to be performed and to be free from restrictions. * Commitment. Professionals feel a commitment to the discipline. They a re more likely to identify with members of their profession in other organizations that with their own organization. * Code of ethics. Finally there is a responsibility to society for the maintenance of professional standards of work. They adhere to professional self-discipline and a code of ethics (Brown, 2011, p. 71). The values and ethics of prospective employees and the alignment of the values and ethics advocated by the company are important consideration when it comes to hiring practice considerations. If a company’s hiring practices are ineffective, it can have detrimental effects to its bottom-line. According to a survey conducted by online payroll company SurePayroll, it found three out of four surveyed business owners admitted to hiring at least one employee they later wished they never had, and many indicated that the mistake resulted in a significant financial loss of more than $10,000 per bad hire, according to 12 percent of respondents (Eddy, 2009). Most companies react to hiring situations as emergencies; that might explain why so many do it so poorly. One Survey of fifty CEOs of global companies along with a pool of executive search consultants who rated about 500 firms found the hiring practices for many of those companies are disturbingly vague. Part of the findings, according to the respondents, indicated to a heavily reliance on subjective personal preferences or on largely unquestioned organizational traditions, often based on false assumptions (Fernà ¡ndez-Arà ¡oz, Groysberg & Nohria, 2009) It is therefore imperative to avoid making bad hiring decisions. As such, your hiring practices should have procedures that need to be followed to ensure the candidates being considered for employment are good matches. Procedures should contain effective methods for screening candidates during the pre-employment phase. Some of these methods should include background checks or skills testing (Eddy, 2009). In order to avoid ineffective hiring practices companies should consider seven steps within their hiring practices to cover the full recruitment spectrum to include: anticipating the need for new hires, specifying the job, developing a pool of candidates, assessing the candidates, closing the deal, integrating the newcomer, and revi ewing the effectiveness of the hiring process (â€Å"Harvard Business, 2009). Continuous training and educational should be a part of everyone’s personal value system as well as remaining as ethical as possible. The best way to stay smart when facing ethical dilemmas is to remain current in your ethical training. In regards to ethics training a team of management researchers recommended the following actions for improving on-the-job ethics. * Behave ethically yourself. Managers are potential role models whose habits and actual behavior send clear signals about the importance of ethical conduct. Ethical behavior is a top-to-bottom proposition. * Screen potential employees. Surprisingly, employers are generally lax when it comes to checking references, credentials, transcripts, and other information on applicant resumes. More diligent action in this area can screen out those given to fraud and misrepresentation. Integrity testing is fairly valid but is no panacea. * Develop a meaningful code of ethics. * Provide ethics training. Employees can be trained to identify and deal with ethical issues during orientation and through seminar, video, and internet training sessions. * Reinforce ethical behavior. Behavior that is reinforced tends to be repeated, whereas behavior that is not reinforced tends to disappear. Ethical conduct too often is ignored or even punished while unethical behavior is rewarded. * Create positions, units, and other structural mechanisms to deal with ethics. Ethics needs to be an everyday affair, not a one-time announcement of a new ethical code that gets filed away and forgotten. â€Å"A growing number of large companies in the United States have chief ethics officers who report directly to the CEO, thus making ethical conduct and accountability priority issues. * Create a climate in which whistle-blowing becomes unnecessary. Whistle-blowing occurs when an employee reports a perceive unethical and/or illegal activity to a third party such as government agencies, news media, or public interest groups (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2008). On May 15, 2002, President Bush signed into law the Notification and Federal Employee Anti-Discrimination and Retaliation (No FEAR) Act to increase federal agency accountability for acts of discrimination or reprisal against employees. The No FEAR Act became effective on October 1, 2003. This act requires that federal agencies post on their public web sites certain summary statistical data relating to equal employment opportunity complaints filed against the respective agencies (State, n.d.). Project Team Project teams have two universal measures; to satisfy the customer, and to deliver on time, on budget and within specification. The rationale for using teams is simple: high performing teams save money and satisfy customers. Unfortunately, there is the other side of the coin: poor performing teams cost money and disappoint customers. In many cases, individuals are assigned to a cross functional team and attempt to jump right into work without first attempting to address the relationship of team members and the behavioral disposition of the individuals. If the behavioral aspects of the team are not understood, then the team can become mired in conflict and lose momentum which results in lost time and effectiveness. Behaviors that can affect productivity include: the inability to work together towards a common goal, fear of sharing ideas, fear of negative feedback, self interest driving actions, expectation that the team leader will solve all of the problems and assume all of the respo nsibility, confusion between individual tasks and relationships with other people, and lack of appropriate acknowledgement for accomplishments (Henkin, 2012). The other consideration in deciding to form teams is what size team should be put together. When it comes to the workplace, teamwork is increasingly widespread. Research indicates there is not a fixed or optimal number to have on a team. Professor Wittenberg, Director of the Wharton Graduate Leadership Program, notes that team size is â€Å"not necessarily an issue people think about immediately, but it is important.† According to Wittenberg, research on the optimal team numbers is not conclusive. In the work world, Professor Wittenberg suggests that it has been â€Å"reinforced that five or six is the right number (on a team) but it really depends on the task† (Knowledge@Wharton, 2006). The other dynamic that needs to be addressed relates to teams is how they resolve conflicts. Conflict management is a very important part of team dynamics. Choosing the right members for a group can help prevent some of these issues. One strategy involves designating a project manager, a strong individual that can competently take charge. The project manager must be experienced and understand how to deal with both the interpersonal as well as behavioural aspects of the teams. They must also understand the normative stages of development most all teams go though as they come together. The project manager must allow the team to communicate effectively, create rapport, resolve conflict, lead team members, and motivate the whole team (Gountanis, n.d.). Team Development Team development is an iterative process. This is readily understood when looking at the ‘forming-storming-norming-performing’ model for team development that has become a standard team development model introduced by Bruce Tuckman. The theory is based on the premise that each team goes through a distinct iterative process. The first phase is described as the forming phase where the team first comes together with energy, expectation, and limited knowledge of assigned task. The next phase is the storming phase where individuals start jockeying for position and recognition. The team internally struggles with why and how decisions made will affect the individual members. The next phase is the norming phase where stability starts to emerge and goals are established with plans and associated defined roles/responsibilities. The last phase is the performing phase where the plans are implemented, outputs are generated, and work gets done. Every team goes through these phases. (Tuckman, 1965). Therefore, it is natural to expect conflicts to arise between team members; however, management as well as the project manager must be cognizant there can be both constructive conflict and destructive conflict. Constructive conflicts exists when people change and grow personally from the conflict, the conflict results in a solution to a problem, it increases involvement of everyone affected by the conflict, and it builds cohesiveness among the members of the team. Destructive conflicts exist when no decision is reached and problem still exists, it diverts energy away from more value-add activities, it destroys the morale of the team members and it polarizes or divides the team (Cappozzoli, 1995). Diversity within the team is another consideration with respect to group dynamics. Professor Klein from the Wharton School of Management and Professor Lim from Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore as part of their research looked at the value of diversity and found that there was conflicting theory. Some research suggests diversity represented by gender, race, and age leads to conflict and affects behavioral integration among team members. The general assumption is that people tend to associate better with people who are similar to themselves which suggest too much diversity is bad for cohesion. Other research suggests diversity helps creates more ideas, more perspectives and more creativity for better solutions. In their research, Klein and Lim found a distinct value in having some similarity between team members which enhances coordination and effectiveness in performing tasks that are complex, unpredictable, urgent, and/or novel (Klein & Lim, 2006). It is possible that a balancing of both theories within a team construct might be beneficial in forming a high performance team. Conclusion Employees’ performance and satisfaction are likely to be higher if their values fit well with the organization. The person who places great importance on imagination, independence, and freedom is likely to be poorly matched with an organization that seeks conformity from its employees (Robbins & Judge, 2013, p. 154). Chick-fil-A’s senior leaders are very vocal about the fact their company is owned and operated on Christian values. In fact, their policy and procedure of closing on Sunday so their employees can enjoy time off with their family and perhaps even attend church is rare in the quick service restaurant business. Chrysler is also very serious about their company values and has placed a code of ethics manual on their website to remind internal employees and external customers about their value systems. One of the roles of managers is to both exhibit and vocalize company values. This works well when your personal values are similar to the company and other senior leaders. The higher an individual rises within an organization, the more important it is that your personality and value system aligned with your company. Both the hiring process of the employees and the ethical standards of behavior for those employees are a critical dynamic supporting the mission objectives of the company. When a company fails to implement effective hiring and ethical policies, the implications can be costly in a variety of quantifiable ways. Finding the right mix of individual employees is a difficult task in terms of attracting and retaining people who are the best fit to the company. The success of the company relies on both the individual as well as those members who become part of teams. The composition of those members to a particular team must be carefully considered by management. The size, makeup, diversity, selection of the team lead, and objective of the team are all important considerations to ensure success. Management must recognize there is some inherent inefficiency in putting teams together as they go through an iterative process of maturity but they must be convinced the benefits of the outcomes out weigh the delays by putting together that particular team. Recommendations The profitability and long term survivability of companies are keys to their success. One of the most important assets to any business entity is human capital resources or personnel. As with any asset, management and leadership hire personnel with the belief they will contribute to the company in a positive manner and demonstrate a return of investment from the standpoint that the hiring and training process requires an investment of both time and money. Therefore, it is imperative that companies seek out, attract, and retain individuals whose personality and values match that of the company. In addition, they must be able to work well within teams to further the objectives of the company. It is also important that the company’s continue to communicate and reinforce their values to the workforce. That message must come from the top down. Senior leadership must convey that message at stockholder meetings, all hands meetings, town hall meetings, and via electronic means. While i t is imperative that message be communicated, it must be supported and reinforced at all levels of management. In addition, the compensation and reward system must recognize behavior and performance consistent with that message. The other important consideration is that leadership and management must be conveying the right message, with the right behaviors, and enveloped by a sense of ethical behavior. One only has to look at Enron, Worldcom, and Arthur Anderson to recognize the catastrophic and costly effects of engaging in behavior as individuals, groups, or management that is conflict with stated values. The recent Chick-Fil-a statements made by Mr. S.T. Cathy where personal views were replaced by those of the corporation started a media firestorm and backlash from many interest groups. The result was negative press for the company and eventually the announcement by the corporation of a customer appreciation day that cost the company tens of millions of dollars in an attempt to counteract the negative events. References Academy of Management Executive, Volume 18, No. 2, (2004), Strategic leadership of ethical behavior in business, Schermerhorn, Thomas, and Dienhart, John, retrieved from http://home.sandiego.edu/~pavett/docs/msgl_503/leader_ethic_behave.pdf Brockmann, Erich. (1996, May). Removing the paradox of conflict from group decisions. Brown, D. R. (2011). An Experiential Approach to Organization Development (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Brumfield, B. (2012). Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2012-08-01/us/us_us-chick-fil-a-controversy_1_civil-unions-marriage-glaad Cappozzoli, Thomas K. (1995, Dec). Resolving conflict within teams. Journal for Quality and Participation. v18n7, p. 28-30 Eddy, Nathan (June 25, 2009). Businesses Losing Money on Bad Hiring Practices Retrieved from http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Midmarket/Businesses-Losing-Money-on-Bad-Hiring-Practices-Survey-Finds-482198/ Gountanis, Chris (n.d.). Team Dynamics – Conflict Resolution Strategies. [ONLINE (htt p:// www.chrisgountanis.com/written-works/50-team-dynamics-conflict-resolution-strategies.html) [Last Accessed 24 September 2012]. Harvard Business Review (May 2009), The Definitive Guide to Recruiting in Good Times and Bad, Fernà ¡ndez-Arà ¡oz, Claudio; Groysberg, Boris; and Nohria, Notin, retrieved from http://hbr.org/2009/05/the-definitive-guide-to-recruiting-in-good-times-and-bad Henkin, Sid (2012). The Behavioral Side of Project Team Effectiveness, [ONLINE (http:// www.prismls.com/PDF_docs/Behavior.side.of.team.effectiveness.pdf)) [Last

Friday, January 10, 2020

School Shootings

Situation On February 14, 2018, Nikolas Cruz massacred 17 students of Stoneman Douglas High School. Since then, politicians, grieving mothers and fathers, and average citizens are at odds with one another over what should be done to prevent such a catastrophe from happening again. In today's world of perceived division, animosity, and public policy debate, it seems now more than ever that school shootings are a hot button issue. In 2018, websites and organizations with political agendas argue that anywhere from 15 to 18 school shootings have happened in the U.S. while those with opposing beliefs say that those incidents have been exaggerated or isolated incidents either near or off a school campus. Since the shooting at the University of Texas (1966) to the Columbine (1999) shooting to most recently the Stoneman Douglas (2018) school shooting, acts of violence are becoming more and more common. School shootings perpetrated by youth (16-25) are a concern and researchers have investigated what causes individuals to perform such actions. Years of research, investigating, autopsies, and psychological evaluations can be, to a degree narrowed down into two causes of school shootings; Individual factors affecting troubled youth and social/cultural influences. While many would argue that there is no definitive cause of school shootings, it seems that most suspects involved experienced some sort of contribution at the psychological or communal level. The researchers who have data to back their argument are hopefully going to be instrumental as to determine a cure or implement preventative measures to make sure a school shooting can either never happen again or reduce the number of incidents/casualties. Researchers: Argument of Individual Factors Affecting Troubled YouthThe consensus among most researchers is that the suspect suffers from mental health issues. Dr. McGee and Dr. DeBernardo, both forensic examiners, believe that â€Å"school shooters† can usually fit a common criteria due to their research of adolescents responsible for school shootings from 1993 to 1998. Both agree that through their research, the â€Å"shooter† is a â€Å"normal† adolescent coming from a middle class, white neighborhood of around 50,000 people. They have a somewhat high IQ and come from a type of broken home (divorce, separation, etc.). It isn't until that they investigated what the child was experiencing pre-incident that caused concern. The adolescent will experience low self-esteem, disconnect from their peers, and some sort of psychological stressor. These stressors/factors all culminate into â€Å"triggering† the suspect into them believing that the only way to respond to recent trauma is to enact violence on whoever they believe is the cause for such conflict. In the case of Charles Whitman who was the perpetrator of the University of Texas massacre, he murdered the ones closest to him, his wife and mother for debatable reasons while Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold took revenge on their entire school. Glenn W. Muschert, author of â€Å"Research in School Shootings† examines the multitudes of contributing factors of school shootings and states â€Å"A variety of causes may contribute to school shootings †¦ even if direct causality may not be established.† (Muschert, 67) While he believes that there is no definitive cause, mental health is the primary point of argumentation. Continuing with the trend of individual factors affecting troubled youth, another pivotal cause that researchers can identify besides mental health problems is peer humiliation/bullying. Mr. Kimmel and Mr. Mahler, authors and contributors to â€Å"Adolescent Masculinity, Homophobia, and Violence† examine the societal impacts of possible school shooters at the peer level, stating â€Å"In conducting our analysis †¦ because they were different from the other boys—shy, bookish, honor students, artistic, musical, theatrical, nonathletic, â€Å"geekish,† or weird.† (Kimmel Mahler, 1445) Contrary to mental health, the argument of these authors is that the influence doesn't happen personally from psychological issues but those around them. In their research, most school shooters are suburban caucasian males in suburban neighborhoods and the influence is from students use of derogatory, homophobic slurs to ridicule these kids and repress their individualistic qualities. Eventually this contributes to the triggers discussed with mental health and the peer humiliation/identity becomes the cause. Another quote from a researcher contributing to the argument that bullying creates school shooters states â€Å"Is there something disturbing about the fact that children expect that their schools will have high levels of gay bashing, slut bashing, violence against girls, racism, and violence against those who are less able or otherwise â€Å"different†?† (Klein,233) Jessie Klein believes through experimentation, statistics and testimonials from victims of bullying, this hurts the individual in such a way that the only recourse is through violence in the form of school shootings. Argument: Social, Media, External Influences Lead to School ShootingsWhile the argument from a multitude of researchers and scholars that mental health and bullying are the preliminary factors that cause school shootings, other researchers examining the same topic have come upon the hypothesis that external factors are to blame. The first would be the media's coverage of school shooters upon apprehension. The national news and tv coverage gives the belief that those who commit school shootings are regarded as celebrities within the nation's spotlight on them. Since the Columbine Shooting the news provides national news to inform America about what is currently happening but students who are currently experiencing a rough patch of bullying, declining mental health, and other things see this as an opportunity to gain the attention of all who are drawn to national disaster. Video games are believed by many to glorify and give possible shooters a platform to commit such an act without consequence leading to the belief that violence in schools is the next step. McGee, J. P., ; DeBernardo, C. R. The classroom avenger: A behavioral profile of school based shootings. The Forensic Examiner, (1999). 8(5-6), 16-18. (2018)Muschert, G.W., Research in School Shootings. (2007) vol. 1, issue.1, 60-80Kimmel, M. S.; Mahler, M. Adolescent Masculinity, Homophobia, and Violence. (2003)k vol. 46, issue. 10, 1439-1458Klein, J., The Bully Society: School Shootings and the Crisis of Bullying in America's Schools. NYU Press. (2012) School Shootings In this paper it looks at some previous school shooting that have happened in the United States. It looks at the shooters, and also look at theories of what possibly could’ve been their motives for commenting such a tragedy, taking innocent lives. The paper looks at what we have learned and what we can do to prevent future school shooting tragedies. It looks at how bullying has pulled the trigger and how kids just want to be heard. The paper looks at what psychologist and criminologist have to say about future shootings and past shooters.It looks at the copycat effect and how the 1999 Columbine High School shooting has set the tone and gained such attention that people have attempted or made notion that there will be an attempted repeat. Keywords: School shootings are a tragedy that does not cross many minds in America until one occurs. The people who end up involved never imagine something like that happening to them, and the ones that go unaffected by the situation continue to ignore it. This is a major problem in America today.But we can’t really fix what we don’t know what to fix, looking back on these tragedies that take place in schools. We see don’t see nothing but a cold blood killer, but looking deeper than what the naked eye sees on the surface, we have saw that many of the shooters that have shot up schools in the past have been victims. They have been victims of harassment, depression, and anger that has been built up. They have stated warning signs but people in society tend to ignore and blow the warning signs off like nothing could ever happen.That is until all the built up anger and resentment from being bullied, feeling alone, and depressed seem to outburst in to horrific tragedies. The Columbine Shooting. America’s most deadly school shooting took place at Columbine High School in 1999. Two boys named Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold opened fire on their classmates killing which 14 classmates and teaches life go t taken away that day when Harris and Klebold entered their school. They also took their own life after the horrific act (Phillips, 2006). It is said that the two killers were plotting this soon to be known tragedy for two months.Right after the shooting happened, it was discovered that one of the gunmen had an internet site talking about killing. The website talked about making pipe bombs on the website it stated that â€Å"pipe bombs were some the easiest and deadliest way to kill a large group of people. † The site also referred to NBK which was an event that that was approaching where the pipe bombs would be used. It’s said that the two boys were a members of an antisocial group that are referred to as the â€Å"Trench Coat Mafia† there was supposedly a group of ten students that wore long coats and dark sunglasses all the time.Classmates of the two killer’s state that they were jerks and that they were strange. They didn’t really talk to anyon e else at the school, they were considered to be outcasts (Marshall, 1999). Shooters who were victims of bullying. One in particular shooting is a prime example that bullying can send someone over the edge. The shooting took place at Heath High School in west Paducah Kentucky in 1997. The shooter was Michael Carneal who claimed he was bullied and he opened fire on the school prayer group, shooting eight of his classmates.When Carneal was asked why did he do it? He said he was sick of being bullied and picked on (Deadly lessons: Understanding, 2003). Carneal stated that he was talked down to and humiliated and even physically tormented. He was brought to his breaking point due to bullying. Michael Carneal wasn’t just the only one that has opened fire in school due to being bullied. Alleged shooter Charles Williams who took the lives of two students injuring thirteen others when he opened fire at a Santana High School in Santee California in 2001.It was the deadliest shooting i n the United States since massacre that took place at Columbine High School in 1999. Williams had a fit depressingly common profile for children in trouble in the United States Schools according to psychologists and the schools security. The teen was a social outsider whose angry lethal threats were taking as jokes by his friends and family. Richard Butterworth a psychologist who studies United States school shootings, states that the consciousness that are in kids today is shooting is the way to manifest their anger.Since the Columbine school shooting schools have been so afraid of a fire in their hallways, they have put extinguishers everywhere. But yet they have done nothing to what are causing the fires, these kids are mad and they don’t know what else to do states Butterworth (Quinn, 2001). Eric Chester a Denver based teen expert stated that Williams â€Å"appears to be another distraught, disengaged, disenfranchised kid who wanted people to take notice of him† (Q uinn, 2001).Williams was a 15 year old who was described as â€Å"a skinny kid who got picked on a lot† some of his other aquanauts described him as an outsider who was a nerd, but others state that he was well liked. One classmate Jessica more says people called him â€Å"freak, dork, and nerd† (Bradberry, 2001). These two examples of school shooters were not the only victims that felt like they had to open fire inside hallways to be notice or heard. Sad to say they will probably be more that are victims of being bullied and will feel as this is the only way.The Copycat Effect. Since the Columbine High School shooting they seem to be an outburst of copycats that have been found with bomb making material in their passion, people who have made threats to do something Columbine like, to people found just days before their plots that are columbine like and are about to be take place and have been stop due to tips to the officials. The recent school shooting that took plac e a Sandy Hook Elementary School where 28 in total lost their life including the shooter himself and his mother.From the evidence gathered at the house of alleged shooter Adam Lanza, there was no goodbye letters nor a tell all letter. No motive was giving as to why Lanza opened fire in an elementary school full of innocent kids, from the news the day of the shooting no one really knew of an Adam Lanza which means he was antisocial probably. However the officials and investigators did discover he was a twenty year old boy who was obsessed with mass killers. The most odd and dark disturbing thing investigators and officials recovered at Lanza’s house was Lanza’s fascination with the 1999 Columbine High School shooting.The Columbine massacre was like the center of Lanza’s obsession that had to do with mass shootings. According to the Newtown report, Lanza had â€Å"hundreds of documents, images, and videos pertaining to the Columbine High School massacre. † He also had downloaded videos about the two gunmen (Pearce, 2013). During an analysis of school shootings between the years 1999-2007 Professor Ralph W. Harkin of the John Jay College of Criminal Justice at City University of New York found that 8 out of 12 school shooters â€Å"directly referred to the Columbine shooting† (Pearce, 2013).Seung-hui Cho just right after the Columbine High shooting, Cho was an eighth grader when he had supposedly written a disturbing English paper and in it he stated that he wanted to make a repeat of the Columbine shooting eight years after that paper he opened fire on the campus of Virginia Tech College and took the lives of 32 people including his own. Which passed the Columbines total body count with flying colors, even though it was at a college. He still was in the train of thought while he was in grade school which wasn’t many years later after the Columbine shooting.Like one Criminologist warned in 2007 after the Virginia Tech sho oting â€Å"records exist but to be broken† (Pearce, 2013). Theories behind the purpose of kids and teenage killers. Although there are a lot of theories on why kids and teenagers go on killing sprees at schools, no one can really put a finger on to why they go on their killing sprees taking innocent people’s lives. A big theory is that they are bullied and that’s the only one that makes sense to a lot of unknown motives of past mass killers that go on killing sprees at schools.They are out casters that can no longer stand the bullying and humiliation, and just want to be heard. They feel as if the only fix to being heard and notice is pack guns to school and unleash the hurt and angry they feel to the bullies, even though they tend to take innocent people’s lives that haven’t done nothing to them in their path to destruction. Some theories state that they just want the fame weather they take their own life in the process or they pay the price livi ng. Other theories blame mental illness, some theories blame numerous things all at once.They were mental ill and got picked on and they went unheard, so they wanted to get famous to get notice and heard. But nobody can actually pin point what has exactly triggered todays youths killing sprees. James Alan Fox a Criminologist professor at Northeast University in Boston states â€Å"Nothing is different about kids† although fifty years ago, a kid that has been getting bullied or is a victim of being bullied is more likely to take their anger out by going on a vandalism spree rather than to pick up the nearest gun they can get their hands on and go on a killing spree (Khadaroo, 2013).What has been learned and what can help prevent school Shootings. Shootings at educational institutes are tragic and a shocking thing for the United States. For the most recent big massacre that took place at Sandy Hook Elementary, there have been many discussions on what we can do to prevent someth ing so horrific from happening again. But in the reality a lot of people find themselves asking can anything really be done to prevent such horrific things like school shooting from happening?An article the is prepared by Dr.  Daniel J. Flannery at Case Western Reserve University and colleagues the article contains an examination of the past studies on the topic that’s main focus is on â€Å"targeted† and â€Å"rampage† or â€Å"spree† shootings. The article finds that there is some characteristics shared from past shooters. Shooters shared characteristics like narcissism, depression, low self-esteem, and a fascination with violence. There isn’t however enough distinctive similarities to create a distinctive profile for a future potential shooter (Springer, 2012).The authors came to a conclusion, that the most effective way to possibly prevent these kind of tragedies is through a threat assessment. An assessment which requires fundamental testing , such as suicide risk, homicide risk, thought process, reality testing, mood and behavior, as well as social and developmental histories. Another key is to pay close attention to an obsession with violence and firearms. Even though this may seem obvious, but the resources that are provided to mental health school officials don’t provide for these assessments.The other conclusion that the authors have come to, is that the mental health officials and adults need to take threats of violence seriously, just like they have been doing to the suicide threats (Springer, 2012). Conclusion. The conclusion we have come to by the end of this paper on school shootings is, that majority of the shootings that have happened have been outburst of anger and just of direr need of wanting to be heard. Although there isn’t many clear motives, almost in every case the shooter have or has been bullied or has been an out caster.We’ve learned that the Columbine High School shooting has set the bar high for the high body count and even though that was surpassed at the Virginia Tech shooting. The Columbine gave school shootings a new tone. Sure we could crack down on guns and make stricter laws toward them. But the Columbine shooters made it clear that if someone really knew how to make a good bomb they could just as well kill people. There are rules about being tougher on bullying but there’s always going to be bullying going on no matter how much we suspend kids, press charges against them it might take away some of the bullying.But it will still be there. A lot of these shooters just wanted to be heard and they felt as opening fire in the hallways of school was the only way to get people to listen. So even though there isn’t a lot we can do in prevention of these horrific crimes we can still look for a solution. School shootings can happen in any community in this country. What people don’t realize is that it can happen in a flash, it doesnà ¢â‚¬â„¢t matter how many awards the school gains for being an efficient school, it doesn’t matter how many good people they’re in the community.There is always a left out person an out caster that has been a victim or is being a victim as we speak that just wants someone to hear them out but this country don’t seem to listen even when they do make threats. Some shooting the shooters have clearly said something bad was going to happen, that they were going to do something. But there again no one would listen people just think yeah right you couldn’t and you wouldn’t. But in reality they are being dead serious. Every threat needs to be taken serious and the one that makes the threats needs people to take time to listen to what they have to say, to what they are feeling.